Dr. Frances Cress Welsing

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing, an American psychiatrist, was born March 18, 1935 in Chicago, Illinois. She was educated at Antioch College, and is noted for her body of work called the “Cress Theory of Color Confrontation“, which explores the practice of white supremacy. Now a practicing psychiatrist in Washington, DC, Dr. Welsing is most famous for The Isis Papers, (Third World Press, 1991), one of the most popular texts of the much debated but loosely defined ideology of afrocentricity. The Isis Papers are a central and core argument for the African origins of civilization through the highlighting of the achievements of African/Egyptian pioneers in the areas of architecture, science, philosophy, and humanism. These origins are often re-colored and re-stated through Eurocentric fabrications, including the fact that some scholars have even dismissed ‘The Papers’ as not having made a direct link between racism and oppression, or even resistance to oppression. Wherever there is a system that is practiced by a global white minority, conscious and unconscious, to ensure genetic survival to the detriment of others, Welsing, uses her education and experiences to teach and train people of color, particularly those of African descent, to understand how white supremacy works and how to dismantle it and bring true justice in the world. In The Isis Papers , Dr. Welsing writes about the melanin theory, a hypothesis that has been called racist, pseudoscientific, and Black supremacist. She also talks about white people as the genetically defective descendants of albino mutants. She teaches that, because of this “genetic mutation,” they may have been forcibly expelled from Africa, among other possibilities. Welsing supposes that lighter-skinned people developed an aggressive urge to...

Langston Hughes

James Mercer Langston Hughes  (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist. He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry. Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance. He famously wrote about the period that “the negro was in vogue” which was later paraphrased as “when Harlem was in vogue”.[1] Ancestry and childhood Both of Hughes’ paternal great-grandmothers were African-American and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners of Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County and supposedly a relative of Henry Clay, and the other was Silas Cushenberry a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County.[2][3] Hughes’s maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French, English and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she first married Lewis Sheridan Leary, also of mixed race. Lewis Sheridan Leary subsequently joined John Brown’s Raidon Harper’s Ferry in 1859 and died from his wounds.[3] In 1869 the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family. Her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Native American, and Euro-American ancestry.[4][5]He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society [6] in 1858. Charles Langston later moved to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans.[4] Charles and Mary’s daughter Caroline was the mother of Langston Hughes.[7] Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, the second child of school teacher Carrie (Caroline) Mercer Langston and James Nathaniel Hughes (1871–1934).[8] Langston Hughes grew up in a series of...
The Maroons of Jamaica

The Maroons of Jamaica

The Maroons of Jamaica the escaped slaves you built their own independent country in the mountains of Jamaica in 1655. The Jamaican Maroons are descended from Africans who fought and escaped from slavery and established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica during the long era of slavery on the island. African slaves imported during the Spanish period may have provided the first runaways, apparently mixing with the native Arawak people that remained in the country. Many gained liberty when the English attacked Jamaica and took it in 1655, and subsequently runaways were referred to as “maroons.” The Windward Maroons and those from the Cockpit Country stubbornly resisted conquest in the First and Second Maroon Wars. When the British captured Jamaica in 1655 the Spanish colonists fled leaving a large number of African slaves. Rather than be re-enslaved by the British, they escaped into the hilly, mountainous regions of the island, joining those who had previously escaped from the Spanish to live with the Arawaks. The Maroons intermarried with Arawak natives, establishing independence in the back country and survived by subsistence farming and by raiding plantations. Over time, the Maroons came to control large areas of the Jamaican interior. The two main Maroon groups in the 18th century were the Leeward and the Windward tribes, the former led by Cudjoe inTrelawny Town and the latter led by his sister Queen Nanny (and later by Quao). Queen Nanny, also known as Granny Nanny (died 1700’s) is the only female listed among Jamaica’s National Heroes, and has been immortalised in songs and legends. She was known for her exceptional leadership skills,...

Booker T. Washington

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum. Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem...

Stokely Carmichael

Stokely Carmichael (also Kwame Ture; June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998) was a Trinidadian–American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. Growing up in the United States from the age of eleven, he graduated from Howard University and rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced “snick”) and later as the “Honorary Prime Minister” of the Black Panther Party.     Early life and education Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Stokely Carmichael moved to Harlem, in New York, New York in 1952 at age eleven to rejoin his parents, who had immigrated when he was age two and left him with his grandmother and two aunts.[1] He had three sisters.[1] As a boy, he had attended Tranquility School in Trinidad until his parents were able to send for him.[2] His mother, Mabel R. Carmichael,[3] was a stewardess for a steamship line, and his father, Adolphus, was a carpenter who also worked as a taxi driver.[1] The reunited Carmichael family eventually left Harlem to live in Van Nest in the East Bronx, at that time an aging neighborhood of primarily Jewish and Italian immigrants and descendants. According to a 1967 interview he gave to Life Magazine,Carmichael was the only black member of the Morris Park Dukes, a youth gang involved in alcohol and petty theft.[1] Carmichael as a senior in high school, 1960. He attended the elite, selective Bronx High School of Science in New York, with entrance based on academic performance. After graduation in 1960, Carmichael enrolled at Howard University, ahistorically black university in Washington, D.C.. His professors included Sterling Brown,[4][5] Nathan Hare[6] and Toni Morrison, a writer who later won the Nobel Prize.[7] Carmichael and Tom Kahn, a Jewish-American student and civil-rights activist, helped to fund a...